Chickens have been a beloved domestic bird for centuries, and for good reason. They offer economic and ecological benefits, from producing eggs and meat to even contributing to waste management. 

But did you know that the key to raising healthy and productive chickens lies in what they eat?

As the saying goes, “you are what you eat,” and the same goes for our feathered friends. By providing them with the proper nutrition, we can ensure they stay healthy, productive, and of high quality. 

In this blog post, we’ll delve into the world of chicken feed, exploring the diverse types available and how to choose the right one to meet your flock’s needs. 

So, let’s get clucking about the importance of a balanced diet for chickens and the benefits it brings to both our feathered friends and us.

Types Of Food Chickens Can Eat

Chickens are omnivorous birds with their voracious appetite and varied diet, chickens have a broad palate that spans from insects and seeds to fruits and vegetables. As omnivores, they are not picky eaters and will even consume small animals like mice and lizards. 

Additionally, chickens require a balanced diet that is high in protein, vitamins, and minerals to remain healthy and productive. Whether foraging in the yard or receiving commercial feed, chickens are sure to relish a diverse range of tasty treats. Let’s dive into the details of “What do chickens eat?”.

Commercial Chicken Feed

Commercial chicken feed is a convenient and widely available option for providing your feathered friends with the nutrients they need. There are several types of commercial chicken feed available, such as crumbles, pellets, and mash, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Each type of feed has its own unique nutrient profile to meet specific dietary needs.

Starter feed: This type of feed is designed for chicks and contains a high percentage of protein to support their rapid growth and development.

Grower feed: This feed is intended for young chickens that have outgrown their starter feed. It has a slightly lower protein content than starter feed and is designed to support steady growth.

Layer feed: As the name suggests, this feed is intended for laying hens and contains a balanced mix of nutrients to support egg production. It typically has a higher calcium content to promote strong eggshells.

Broiler feed: This feed is for meat birds and contains a high percentage of protein to support rapid muscle growth.

All-purpose feed: This type of feed is suitable for adult chickens of all ages and is a convenient, all-in-one solution.

Choosing the right feed for your chickens depends on their age, breed, and purpose. Overall, commercial chickens feed is an excellent option for ensuring that your chickens receive a well-rounded diet that promotes their health and well-being.


Including vegetables in a chicken’s diet is a wonderful way to provide them with a range of important vitamins and minerals. Some of the best vegetables for chicken include leafy greens like spinach and kale, as well as carrots, beets, and pumpkins. Preparing vegetables for chicken is simple and involves washing them thoroughly, cutting them into small pieces, and avoiding seasoning.

Chickens can eat a wide variety of vegetables, including:

  • Carrots
  • Cabbage
  • Kale
  • Spinach
  • Broccoli
  • Cauliflower
  • Sweet potato
  • Pumpkin
  • Squash
  • Tomatoes
  • Peppers (bell peppers, jalapenos, etc.)
  • Corn
  • Peas
  • Beans (green beans, snap peas, etc.)
  • Lettuce (in moderation)

When it comes to how much and how often to feed vegetables to chickens, it’s important to keep in mind that they should only make up a small portion of their overall diet. A good rule of thumb is to provide a handful of vegetables per bird once or twice a week, in addition to their regular commercial feed. This ensures that they receive the benefits of fresh produce without disrupting the balance of their diet.

To make vegetables more interesting for chickens, consider hanging them or placing them in a feeder to encourage natural pecking and foraging behaviors. This also helps to prevent waste and ensures that the vegetables are consumed in a timely manner.

By including a variety of vegetables in a chicken’s diet, preparing them in a way that is easy to eat, and providing them in moderation, chickens can enjoy a healthy and balanced diet that supports their overall well-being.


Fruits are a tasty and nutritious addition to a chicken’s diet, offering a range of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Some of the best fruits for chicken include apples, bananas, grapes, berries, and watermelon. To prepare fruits for chickens, it’s essential to wash them thoroughly and cut them into small, bite-sized pieces. This helps to prevent choking and makes it easier for chickens to eat.

Chickens can eat a variety of fruits, including:

  • Apples
  • Bananas
  • Berries (strawberries, raspberries, blueberries)
  • Grapes
  • Mangoes
  • Melons (watermelon, cantaloupe)
  • Oranges
  • Pears
  • Pineapples
  • Pomegranates

When it comes to how much and how often to feed fruits to chickens, moderation is key. A small handful of fruit once or twice a week is a good starting point, in addition to their regular commercial feed. Offering too much fruit can disrupt the balance of a chicken’s diet and may lead to digestive issues. It’s also important to remove any uneaten fruit after a few hours to prevent spoilage and attract pests.

Offering a diverse range of fruits to chickens, prepared in a manner that is both secure and easy for them to consume, while also being mindful of portion control, is a fantastic way to ensure that they receive all the essential nutrients and vitamins present in fresh produce while maintaining a well-balanced diet.


Grains are a fundamental component of a chicken’s diet, providing essential carbohydrates, proteins, and fats that support healthy growth and development. Some of the best grains for chicken include corn, wheat, oats, and barley. To prepare grains for chickens, they should be washed thoroughly and cooked or soaked until they are soft and easy to digest.

When it comes to how much and how often to feed grains to chickens, it’s essential to ensure that they are not the sole component of their diet. A balanced diet for chickens should consist of around 90% commercial feed, with grains making up no more than 10%. It’s also important to avoid feeding them too many grains too often, as this can lead to weight gain and other health issues.

If you’re looking to jazz up your chickens’ mealtime, consider mixing their grains with other foods or offering them as a special treat. This not only adds variety to their diet but also encourages natural behaviors of pecking, keeping them engaged and happy. By including a range of grains in their diet, properly preparing them for optimal digestion, and feeding them in moderation, you can ensure that your feathered friends are receiving all the necessary nutrients to maintain a healthy and balanced diet.

Protein Sources

Protein is a crucial component of a chicken’s diet, supporting healthy muscle growth, feather development, and overall health. Some of the best protein sources for chickens include mealworms, crickets, fish, and meat scraps. These can be easily incorporated into a chicken’s diet by offering them as treats or mixing them in with their regular feed.

When it comes to preparing protein sources for chickens, it’s important to ensure that they are cooked thoroughly and free of any harmful bacteria. Meat scraps should be cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F, while insects and fish should be frozen overnight before feeding to ensure that any parasites are killed off.

While protein is a crucial nutrient for chickens, overfeeding them can have detrimental effects on their health, leading to issues such as kidney damage and gout. To ensure your feathered friends are getting the right amount, limit protein treats to no more than 10% of their diet and offer them only a few times a week. To keep chickens healthy and thriving, it’s important to include a variety of safe and properly prepared protein sources in their diet.



Grit is an essential component of a chicken’s diet as it helps them break down and digest its food properly. Without it, chickens may experience digestive issues and become malnourished.

There are two main types of grit – insoluble and soluble. Insoluble grit is made up of small stones or rocks that chickens swallow, and it helps to grind down their food in the gizzard. Soluble grit, on the other hand, is made up of materials like oyster shells and helps to regulate the pH levels in the chicken’s digestive tract.

To provide grit to chickens, it’s important to make sure they always have access to it. This can be done by scattering small rocks or crushed oyster shells on the ground or by placing them in a separate dish. It’s important to choose the appropriate size of grit for your chickens, as too large or too small can cause choking or blockages in the digestive tract.

By ensuring your chickens have access to the appropriate grit, you can help them maintain optimal digestive health and prevent issues such as malnourishment and digestive blockages.

Foods Chickens Should Avoid

While chickens are known for being omnivorous and having a diverse diet, there are certain foods that they should avoid. Toxic foods for chickens include avocado, chocolate, and caffeine, which can cause heart and respiratory issues. Onions and garlic are also harmful to chickens as they can damage their red blood cells and cause anemia.

Chickens should not eat the following foods:

  • Avocado
  • Chocolate
  • Coffee
  • Dried or undercooked beans
  • Green potato skins and sprouts
  • Junk food (chips, candy, etc.)
  • Moldy or spoiled food
  • Onions and garlic
  • Processed foods with high salt content
  • Rhubarb leaves
  • Seeds and pits from fruits (such as apple seeds or cherry pits)
  • Uncooked rice

Foods that can make chickens sick include spoiled or moldy food, which can cause digestive issues and bacterial infections. High-sugar foods such as candy or sugary drinks should also be avoided, as they can disrupt the balance of beneficial bacteria in the chicken’s digestive system.

As a rule, it’s best to avoid giving chickens any food that is high in salt, fat, or sugar, as well as any food that has been heavily processed. By avoiding these harmful foods and providing a balanced, nutritious diet, you can help your chickens maintain optimal health and well-being.


In conclusion, feeding your chickens a healthy and balanced diet is key to ensuring their overall well-being and longevity. Whether you choose to feed them a commercial feed, vegetables, fruits, grains, or protein sources, it’s important to keep in mind the proper portions and frequency of each food group.

Maintaining a proper diet for chickens involves offering them fresh water and occasional treats in moderation. It’s essential to avoid giving them toxic foods that can lead to severe health problems. Seeking advice from a poultry nutritionist or veterinarian can be helpful in selecting the appropriate feed and supplements for your chickens’ optimal health.

In addition, make sure to clean your chickens’ feeding and watering equipment regularly and provide them with plenty of space to roam and forage. By following these tips and providing proper nutrition and care, you can enjoy the benefits of healthy, happy chickens and delicious, fresh eggs for years to come. Happy Clucking!


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